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Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is widely used in the disinfection and surface modification of biomaterials. NTP treatment can regenerate and improve skin function; however, its effectiveness on hair follicle (HF) growth and its underlying mechanisms need to be elucidated. Herein, we propose an air-based NTP treatment, which generates exogenous nitric oxide (eNO), as a therapeutic strategy for hair growth. The topical application of air-based NTP generates large amounts of eNO, which can be directly detected using a microelectrode NO sensor, in the dermis of mouse dorsal skin. Additionally, NTP-induced eNO has no cytotoxicity in normal human skin cells and promotes hair growth by increasing capillary tube formation, cellular proliferation, and hair/angiogenesis-related protein expression. Furthermore, NTP treatment promotes hair growth with adipogenesis and activation of CD34+CD44+ stem cells and improves the inter-follicular macroenvironment via increased perifollicular vascularity in the mouse hair regrowth model. Given the importance of the hair follicle (HF) cycle ratio (growth vs. regression vs. resting) in diagnosing alopecia, NTP treatment upregulates the stem cell activity of the HF to promote the anagen : catagen : telogen ratio, leading to improved hair growth. We confirmed the upregulation of increasing Wnt/β-catenin signaling and activation of perifollicular adipose tissue and angiogenesis in HF regeneration. In conclusion, these results show that the eNO from NTP enhances the cellular activities of human skin cells and endothelial cells in vitro and stem cells in vivo, thereby increasing angiogenesis, adipogenesis, and hair growth in the skin dermis. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that NTP treatment may be a highly efficient alternative in regenerative medicine for achieving enhanced hair growth.