https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218528/ In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting effects of PM extract in cultured human DPCs and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. It was found that treatment of PM extract stimulated proliferation and mitochondrial activity in cultured human DPCs. PM extract increased the expression of BCl2, an anti-apoptotic protein and decreased the expression of BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein in cultured DPCs and/or 3D DPC spheroid culture. Also, PM extract decreased the expression of catagen inducing protein, Dkk-1. In addition, the expression of growth factors like PDGF-aa and VEGF, known to be crucial for hair growth, was increased by PM extract treatment. These results clearly demonstrate the potential role of PM extract in promoting hair growth by elongating anagen and/or delaying catagen entry. PM extract was found to prolong the anagen of human hair follicles by inhibiting catagen entry in human hair follicle organ culture model. We observed anti- androgenic effects of PM extract, different from previously reported mechanism related to inhibition of 5α-reductase. It was revealed that PM extract significantly reduced the expression of androgen receptor (AR) induced by DHT and recovered the reduced size of DPC spheroid by DHT treatment which mimicked the hair follicle miniaturization observed in Androgenetic Alopecia.